How do we do it? By taming the following:
- Male gaze
- Outgroup demonization
- Fundamental attribution error (FAE) – reactively judging oneself–including one’s efforts–as superior, and others’ as inferior
Outgroup demonization is turned inside-out into (“outto”?) ingroup angelification.
The ideal opposite of FAE is FAC, i.e. fundamental attribution correction. Through FAC, we fundamentally attribute correctly, viewing oneself and others as innately, humanly equal and democratic!
In yesterday’s post, I laid out positive psychology’s six virtues. Each virtue (wisdom; courage; humanity; justice; temperance; and transcendence) consists of three to five character strengths.
Each of these character strengths can technically be considered a “sub-virtue”. Let’s assume that maximizing at least half of each virtue’s sub-components–or achieving medium competence in each sub-virtue–leads to attainment of the higher virtue(s).
Wisdom’s character strengths are: creativity; curiosity; open-mindedness; love of learning; and perspective.
Courage’s sub-virtues are bravery; persistence; integrity; and vitality.
Humanity’s are love, kindness, and social intelligence.
Justice’s are citizenry, fairness, and leadership.
Temperance’s sub-virtues are forgiveness/mercy; humility/modesty; prudence; and self-regulation.
Finally, transcendence’s character strengths are: appreciation; gratitude; hope; humor and playfulness; and spirituality.
Building on each of these 24 aspects of one’s character leads to its ultimate strengthening! How does one build on them–all the way from creativity to spirituality? And: Is it better to focus on a few sub-virtues…or to balance them all equally?
How does one lead a life of virtue, or what Seligman calls the “good life”?
Positive psychologists distinguish between six virtues. These are wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence. The virtuous person, then, must be wise; courageous; humane; just; temperate; and/or transcendent.
What does each of the six virtues consist of? Each virtue is further divided into 24 character strengths. Being virtuous thus means having a strong character.
Building strength of character–while requisite for cultivating virtue–may be more diverse and nuanced!
Seligman equated the good life with the life of virtue. The pleasant life is happy in the normal, “Hollywood” sense.
How do the good, pleasant, and meaningful lives lead to ultimate well-being?
Positive psychology recognizes the PERMA model of well-being. PERMA is broken down into positive emotion (P), engagement (E), relationships (R), meaning (M), and achievement (A).
The pleasant life consists in a lot of positive emotion, P. Where does this leave the good life of virtue?
Martin Seligman divides life into three kinds: the good, the pleasant, and the meaningful lives.
Viktor Frankl believed that the meaningful life consisted in surrendering to something or someone greater than oneself.
How do we achieve the good and pleasant lives?
Observe, respect, and rejoice in the sacred!
Recognize and then trust insight.
Dependent people rely on others.
Independent people rely on themselves…
Interdependent people rely on others and themselves!
A genuine insight promises knowledge.
Existential-humanistic (E-H) psychology is the study of human existence.
Psychology in general is the science of mental processes (mind) and behavior.
Thus, E-H psychology enlarged is the science of mind and behavior within human existence.
But what is human existence with no mind? Mind is a necessary feature; for without it, we’d have no room to consider human existence to begin with.
Behavior may be said to pervade all levels of reality. In physics, we speak of the behavior of particles. Social science considers the situational behavior of persons as human beings.
Mind and behavior are thus part-and-parcel of human existence. Our science of the former two topics must serve to bolster our understanding–and, ultimately, experience–of the latter.
As minded human persons who behave situationally, how do we experience our existence?